Error Correction methods are a crucial part of information theory where a message may be coded using a scheme such as the Hamming Code. This coding process takes a piece of information that for example may be 4 bits wide and map the 16 possible values to a 7 bit symbol. In this process, the overall bit length of the data is increased but the resultant “information” or entoropy within these bits remains the same as it’s uncoded counterpart. In other words redundant information exists in the new data stream. With this redundancy in place, if this information was transmitted through a lossy channel such as a wireless radio and a bit was lost or misinterpreted, the receiver could use the redundant information in the stream to verify its validity and correct for the incorrect bit(s).
There is much research and theory in error correction and also characterizing particular types of losses in certain channels. Knowing what losses may exist, a coding scheme may be optimized for this particular type of channel. Coding schemes may also be robust enough to detect and repair multiple bit errors within a datastream.
Triad engineers work on a variety of ASIC designs where use of error correction is critical