In ASIC developments it is sometimes necessary to create a voltage that is inversely proportional to temperature, or complementary to absolute temperature (CTAT). The CTAT is an essential building block of a voltage reference that is constant over temperature. Temperature independent references are used in ASIC designs for functions such as bias circuits and data converter reference voltage sources. For example, a voltage reference is typically designed using a CTAT voltage summed with a voltage that is proportional to absolute temperature (PTAT). The summation of the two voltages will be constant over temperature if the temperature coefficients are chosen to cancel.

Triad can implement precision voltage references on the ASIC die to allow complete integration of precision mixed-signal functions such as high resolution data converter solutions.